Indonesiens demokratisches Wunder

JAKARTA: Es geschehen noch Zeichen und Wunder. Als Indonesiens Wirtschaft vor zehn Jahren von der asiatischen Finanzkrise gebeutelt wurde, sagten viele Experten voraus, dass das Land instabil werden, wenn nicht gar zerfallen würde. Stattdessen hat sich Indonesien, das bevölkerungsreichste islamische Land, zu einem Symbol der Freiheit und Demokratie in der muslimischen Welt entwickelt. Was ist passiert? Und warum hat die Welt es nicht zur Kenntnis genommen?

Die Geschichte ist so komplex wie Indonesien selbst. Ein führender Indonesienexperte, Benedict Anderson, führt Indonesiens Charakter auf seine javanische Kernkultur und insbesondere auf die religiöse Tradition des Wayang zurück. Anderson formuliert: „Im Gegensatz zu den großen Religionen des Nahen Ostens kennt die Religion des Wayang keinen Propheten, keine Botschaft, keine Bibel, keinen Erlöser ... Die endlose Vielfalt seiner dramatis personae ist ein Hinweis darauf, dass das Wayang die Buntheit des menschlichen Lebens widerspiegelt, so wie sie von den Javanern empfunden wird ...“ Kurz gesagt: Die javanische Kultur helfe Indonesien, mit den vielen unterschiedlichen Stimmen umzugehen, die eine junge Demokratie hervorbringt.

Es gibt außerdem eine starke indonesische Tradition, Unstimmigkeiten durch „musyawarah dan mufakat“ (Beratung und Konsens) beizulegen. Natürlich hat diese Tradition Gewalt nicht immer verhindert; offenkundigstes Beispiel dafür sind die Morde, die auf den Staatsstreich gegen Präsident Sukarno 1966 folgten. Und vor zehn Jahren, während der Finanzkrise, kam es erneut zu antichinesischen Ausschreitungen, die viele Chinesen veranlassten, aus dem Land zu fliehen.

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