印尼的民主奇迹

雅加达——现代奇迹的确在发生。10年前,当亚洲金融危机侵袭印尼经济的时候,许多专家都预言这个国家即使不走向分裂,也将从此失去稳定。而事实却恰恰相反,印尼,这个世界上人口最多的伊斯兰国家,慢慢地成为了穆斯林世界自由和民主的风向标。到底发生了什么?为什么没有引起世界的关注?

这个问题就像印尼本身一样复杂。本尼迪克特·安德森,一位权威的印尼问题专家,认为印尼的特点起源于其核心的爪哇文化,特别是哇扬宗教传统。安德森认为,“与近东地区的伟大宗教不同的是…哇扬教没有先知、没有预言、没有圣经、没有救世主…其宗教人物的多种多样和鲜明个性表明哇扬教反映了爪哇人所感知到的人类生活的斑斓色彩…”。简言之,爪哇文化能够帮助印尼人处理好新民主诞生时期许许多多的不同声音。

印尼还有一个很强的传统,那就是通过“musyawarah dan mufakat”(协商和共识)来解决分歧。当然,这个传统并不总能阻止暴力,最臭名昭著的例子是1966年针对苏加诺总统的政变后进行的杀戮活动。还有10年前的金融危机期间,反对中国的暴乱活动再次爆发,致使许多华人逃离了这个国家。

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