Bay Ismoyo

Загнать в бутылку Джини Индонезии

ДЖАКАРТА – Когда в 1945 году Индонезия провозгласила свою независимость от голландской власти, основатель страны – Сукарно – призвал народ построить страну, которая была бы «сильной» и всегда единой. Эта мантра – единство и сила – помогла определить будущее страны, в том числе её подходы к экономическому развитию. На протяжении большей части ранней истории Индонезии уравнительное распределение богатств и активов в стране заметно выделяло её среди соседей.

Но спустя семь десятилетий эти традиции равенства потускнели. Если Индонезия хочет и дальше оставаться экономически одной из самых сильных стран Азии, крайне важно, чтобы её нынешнее руководство подтвердило прежнее обязательство сокращать социо-экономические разрывы.

На протяжении большей части 1970-х и 1980-х годов низкий уровень неравенства доходов в Индонезии помогал повышать качество жизни и снижать уровень бедности. В 1970 году, то есть спустя всего 25 лет после обретения страной независимости, она достигла завидных успехов в распределении богатства среди своего разнородного населения, а её индекс Джини, это общепринятый показатель уровня неравенства в доходах, равнялся 0,35 (ноль здесь соответствует максимальному уровню равенству). Для сравнения: в соседней Малайзии коэффициент Джини равнялся тогда 0,50.

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