Young woman with smartphone.

Sozialleistungen im Uber-Zeitalter

PARIS – In der Frage der Vergütung ist es häufig wichtiger, für was für ein Unternehmen Sie arbeiten, als wie gut Sie Ihre Arbeit machen. Der Durchschnittsmitarbeiter bei der Investmentbank Goldman Sachs verdiente 2013 383.000 Dollar – viel mehr, als der leistungsstärkste Mitarbeiter in den meisten Unternehmen erhoffen kann.

Die Gehaltsunterschiede zwischen Unternehmen sind beträchtlich. Untersuchungen von Jason Furman, dem obersten Wirtschaftsberater von US-Präsident Barack Obama, und Peter Orszag, Obamas ehemaligem Haushaltsdirektor, haben ergeben, dass zunehmende Gehaltsunterschiede zwischen Unternehmen der Hauptgrund für die wachsende Ungleichheit bei den Gehältern in den USA in den letzten Jahrzehnten waren. Ein größerer Teil des zunehmenden Gehaltsgefälles entfällt hierauf als auf firmeninterne Gehaltsunterschiede oder Kapitaleinnahmen.

Am anderen Ende des Spektrums stehen viele Erwerbstätige, die Zeitverträge haben, für kleine Unternehmen arbeiten oder Freiberufler sind. Einige haben mehrere Arbeitsverhältnisse gleichzeitig. Falls sich, wie viele das erwarten, die sogenannte Sharing Economy weiter entwickelt, wird ihre Zahl noch steigen. Diese Erwerbstätigen haben keine sicheren Arbeitsplätze und verdienen im Allgemeinen deutlich weniger.

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