Bartosz Hadyniak/Getty Images

Saatnya bagi India untuk Melebarkan Sayap

WASHINGTON, DC – Bayangkan diri anda sebagai orangtua dengan banyak anak dan keterbatasan sumber daya. Putra pertama anda sudah cukup dewasa untuk mencari tempat tinggalnya sendiri namun ia tidak menghendakinya. Jadi ia tetap tinggal di rumah dan menghabiskan sumber daya yang jauh lebih dibutuhkan adik-adiknya. Apakah anda patut membiarkan putra-putri anda yang lain menderita karena kakak mereka enggan hidup mandiri?

Dinamika serupa tengah berlangsung antara Bank Dunia dan penerima bantuan International Development Association (IDA). IDA mendukung pemerataan pembangunan di negara-negara miskin melalui pemberian pinjaman dan hibah berbunga rendah dan jangka panjang kepada pemerintah pusat. Program ini membantu 77 negara termiskin di dunia, setengah diantaranya berlokasi di benua Afrika. Namun IDA juga menyalurkan bantuan kepada satu negara yang tidak membutuhkannya lagi: India.

Di akhir tahun fiskal 2014, India resmi keluar dari program IDA karena tingkat kemiskinan di India tidak cukup parah sehingga bisa masuk kualifikasi negara peminjam IDA. Bank Dunia menetapkan ambang batas penerimaan bantuan, berdasarkan pendapatan nasional bruto (GNI) per kapita. Pada tahun fiskal 2016, ambang batasnya adalah $1,215. GNI per kapita India setiap tahunnya sejak tahun 2010 sudah melampaui batas Bank Dunia. Pada tahun 2014, angka tersebut adalah $1,570.

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