L'Inde montre l'exemple

Un coup décisif a été porté à la pauvreté lorsque le nouveau ministre des Finances indien, M. Chidambaram, a présenté le budget 2004/2005. L'Inde est un pays en marche, caractérisé par un développement économique rapide et un dynamisme éclatant dans le secteur des technologies de l'information. Mais c'est aussi le pays de 300 millions de personnes parmi les plus pauvres du monde. Aux élections nationales de mai dernier, les électeurs des campagnes indiennes ont rejeté la coalition au pouvoir. Le message était clair : il faut s'attaquer à la pauvreté des populations rurales. Le nouveau gouvernement a entendu cet appel, et propose un programme aux implications fascinantes, pour l'Inde comme pour l'ensemble des pays en développement.

Ce gouvernement est dirigé par une véritable " équipe de rêve " experte en développement international. Le Premier ministre Manmohan Singh est l'un des plus grands économistes spécialistes du développement dans le monde. En 1991, c'est lui, alors ministre des Finances, qui avait lancé les réformes libérales en Inde. Il avait mis fin à des décennies de contraintes inefficaces imposées par le gouvernement au commerce, aux investissements et à l'esprit d'entreprise, et déclenché ainsi une période de croissance économique sans précédent dans l'histoire de l'Inde.

Lorsqu'il a repris du service au printemps dernier en tant que Premier ministre, Manmohan Singh a apporté au gouvernement une équipe expérimentée de renommée internationale, avec notamment au ministère des Finances M. Chidambaram, qui avait occupé ce poste avec succès au milieu des années 90, et à la tête de la Commission de Planification, l'organe principal chargé de définir la stratégie d'investissements publics à moyen terme du pays, le Dr Montek Singh Ahluwalia.

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