La India recobra el aliento

NUEVA DELHI – Vuelve la economía india. Tras varios años de decepcionante desempeño, sus autoridades están adoptando políticas dirigidas a aumentar la tasa de interés para recuperar el nivel cercano al 9 % que la India alcanzó entre 2004 y 2008.

No será fácil. La India tiene muchas desventajas y carece de gran cantidad de las cosas necesarias para mantener un crecimiento rápido.

Si bien India cuenta con universidades e institutos tecnológicos excelentes, su sistema de educación primaria es desastrosamente pobre. El sistema de castas y las leyes laborales impiden que el mercado de trabajo funcione de manera eficiente. La política de cuotas para las castas inferiores y los miembros de ciertas tribus «programadas» afectan a las instituciones educativas, el empleo gubernamental e incluso a las empresas privadas. Las políticas populistas que transfieren fondos presupuestarios escasos a cientos de millones de personas en zonas rurales terminan fomentando su retiro de su fuerza de trabajo y el alza de los salarios, y socavando su competitividad internacional.

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