Indiens neuer Auftrieb

NEU-DELHI – Die indische Wirtschaft holt wieder auf. Nach mehreren enttäuschend schwachen Jahren schwenken die Behörden nun auf politische Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der jährlichen Wachstumsrate um, damit sie sich wieder dem Niveau von etwa 9 % nähern, das Indien von 2004 bis 2008 erreicht hat.

Das wird nicht einfach. In Indien gibt es viele Hindernisse und es fehlt an vielen Dingen, die notwendig sind, um ein schnelles Wachstum aufrechtzuerhalten.

Obwohl Indien über herausragende Universitäten und technische Institute verfügt, ist das Grundschulsystem katastrophal arm. Das Kastensystem und das Arbeitsrecht verhindern einen effizienten Arbeitsmarkt. Die Quotenpolitik für untere Kasten und für Mitglieder bestimmter „geschützter“ Stämme hat Einfluss auf Bildungsinstitutionen, staatliche Arbeitsplätze und sogar private Firmen. Eine populistische Politik, die knappe Haushaltsgelder an Hunderte Millionen von Männern und Frauen auf dem Land verteilt, ermutigt diese am Ende dazu, ihre Arbeit vom Markt zurückzuziehen, wodurch die Löhne in die Höhe getrieben werden und die internationale Wettbewerbsfähigkeit untergraben wird.

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