Le second souffle de l'Inde

NEW DELHI – L'économie indienne est en train de repartir. Après plusieurs années de résultats décevants, le gouvernement se tourne vers des politiques visant à augmenter le taux de croissance annuel vers les 9% réalisés par l'Inde de 2004 à 2008.

Ce ne sera pas facile. L'Inde a de nombreux handicaps et manque de nombreux facteurs nécessaires au maintien d'une croissance rapide.

Bien que l'Inde dispose d'universités et d'instituts technologiques exceptionnels, le système d'éducation primaire est d'un très faible niveau. Le système des castes et les lois du travail empêchent un marché du travail efficace. La politique des quotas qui vise les castes inférieures et les membres de certaines tribus « planifiées », a un effet sur les établissements éducatifs, l'emploi public et même sur les sociétés privées. Les mesures politiques populistes qui transfèrent des fonds limités vers des centaines de millions d'hommes et de femmes habitant en milieu rural finissent de les encourager à retirer leurs services de main-d'œuvre, ce qui entraîne une hausse des salaires et nuit à la compétitivité internationale.

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