El Consenso de Nueva Delhi

NUEVA DELHI – Uno de los desenvolvimientos más notables (a pesar de pasar mayormente inadvertido) en la reciente política de la India ha sido el sorprendente cambio en el discurso del país sobre el capitalismo. Al igual que en muchos países en vías de desarrollo, la “confianza en sí mismos” y la autosuficiencia económica fueron los mantras nacionales de la India después de su independencia – y, en el caso de la India, permanecieron como tales durante más de cuatro décadas. Mientras que la mayoría de los occidentales relacionan axiomáticamente al capitalismo con la libertad, los nacionalistas de la India lo asociaban con la esclavitud. Después de todo, la “British East India Company”, la empresa que actuó como el heraldo del capitalismo, llegó a realizar actividades comerciales y se quedó a gobernar.

Una de las lecciones que la historia nos enseña es que la historia a menudo nos enseña lecciones equivocadas. Para los líderes nacionalistas de la India, esto llevó a la creencia de que todo extranjero con un maletín debía ser visto como el filo de un hacha neo-imperial.

Esto tuvo serias implicaciones con relación al papel de la India en la economía mundial. En lugar de optar por integrar a la India en el sistema capitalista mundial, tal como sólo un puñado de países poscoloniales optó – por ejemplo, Singapur – los líderes de la India (y los líderes de mayoría de las antiguas colonias) estaban convencidos de que la independencia política por la que habían luchado podría garantizarse únicamente a través de la independencia económica.

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