O Consenso de Nova Deli

NOVA DELI – Um dos desenvolvimentos mais notáveis ​​(embora passe bastante despercebido) na recente política indiana foi a mudança surpreendente no discurso do país a respeito do capitalismo. Tal como acontece em muitos países em desenvolvimento, a "auto-suficiência" e a auto-subsistência económica foram os mantras nacionais da Índia após a independência - e, no caso da Índia, esses mantras mantiveram-se durante mais de quatro décadas. Enquanto a maioria dos ocidentais associa, incontestavelmente, o capitalismo à liberdade, os nacionalistas indianos associam-no à escravidão. Afinal, a Companhia Britânica das Índias Orientais, uma precursora do capitalismo, tinha vindo para se dedicar ao comércio e ficou para governar.

Uma das lições que a história nos ensina é o facto de a história muitas vezes nos ensinar as lições erradas. Para os líderes nacionalistas da Índia, este facto significava que todos os estrangeiros que andassem com uma pasta na mão deveriam ser considerados como um prenúncio do neo-imperialismo.

Esta perspectiva teve sérias implicações no papel que a Índia desempenhou na economia mundial. Em vez de integrar a Índia no sistema capitalista global, como o fizeram apenas alguns países pós-coloniais - como Singapura, por exemplo - os líderes da Índia (e os governantes de colónias mais antigas) estavam convencidos de que a independência política pela qual tinham lutado apenas podia ser garantida através da independência económica.

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