Dean Rohrer

Новая правящая каста Индии

КЕМБРИДЖ. Самые масштабные выборы в истории, в которых приняли участие более 700 миллионов избирателей, завершились победой правящего союза Индии, возглавляемого премьер-министром Манмоханом Сингом из Индийского Национального Конгресса. Результаты опровергли мрачные предсказания сварливого парламента и дальнейшее укрепление региональных партий. Новое правительство будет гораздо более устойчивым по сравнению с его многочисленными предшественниками. Таким образом, результаты выборов привели к глубоким переменам.

Но факт остается фактом: как и предыдущие правительства, новая администрация будет, главным образом, состоять из политических деятелей, которые не годятся на то, чтобы занимать посты министров. В то время как некоторым провинциальным деспотам путь был перекрыт, набирающие силу новые деспоты получили значительную поддержку. Несмотря на очевидный успех индийской демократии, ее парламентская система не очень хорошо справляется с тем, чтобы обеспечить Индию хорошими органами власти.

Безусловно, Индия не является недееспособным государством. Лант Притчетт из Школы Кеннеди при Гарварде придумал для Индии новое определение: «мечущееся государство» - страна, в которой особо авторитетные верхние эшелоны правительства неспособны управлять более низкими слоями, что приводит к плохим результатам.

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