La nueva política de castas en la India

Una vez más, la sombra de las castas se cierne sobre la política de la india. Las “reservaciones” (plazas reservadas) en la educación y los empleos públicos supuestamente deben beneficiar a los más desposeídos, pero en realidad han endurecido, no erosionado, el antiguo sistema de discriminación de la India.

De vez en cuando, sobre todo antes de las elecciones, los grupos de castas exigen que se les incluya en la lista de “otras clases atrasadas” (OCA) para beneficiarse de estas reservaciones. En efecto, actualmente los partidos políticos ofrecen la zanahoria de las reservaciones a un número cada vez mayor de castas e incluso prometen ampliar la política de admisión a las instituciones educativas de élite y al sector privado.

Muchos consideran que la creciente movilización a lo largo de las divisiones de casta en la India es una afirmación benéfica de la “identidad”. En efecto, intelectuales y políticos de todos tipos aplauden casi unánimemente la política de la identidad de casta como un avance hacia la verdadera igualdad. Algunos incluso argumentan que el reciente ascenso de las castas bajas en la política del norte de la India y la implementación de reservaciones por parte del gobierno central equivalen a una revolución silenciosa, y que la política de castas es secular y es un baluarte contra el sectarismo religioso.

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