El dinamismo frugal de la India

NUEVA DELHI – La economía en bajada de la India ha infundido, a lo largo y a lo ancho, pesimismo y pensamientos fatalistas; sin embargo, este sentimiento bajista que va en aumento se encuentra mal ubicado. La India todavía ofrece esperanza, pero, para entender por qué, usted tiene que dejar a un lado los indicadores macroeconómicos y dirigir su atención a los indicadores micro. A modo de ejemplo: realice una búsqueda en Google de la frase en inglés “frugal innovation” (“innovación frugal”), y la totalidad de los primeros 20 resultados de dicha búsqueda hacen referencia a la India.

Desde hace ya tiempo atrás, las empresas de la India han visto oportunidades para satisfacer demandas “en la parte inferior de la pirámide” que anteriormente habían sido pasadas por alto. Los sobrecitos de champú se originaron en la India hace más de dos décadas atrás, estos sobrecitos crearon un mercado para un producto que los pobres nunca antes habían podido pagar. Los ciudadanos de la India que no tienen suficiente espacio o dinero para comprar una botella de champú que cuesta 100 rupias, pueden gastar cinco rupias en un sobrecito que usarán en una o dos oportunidades.

Pero el liderazgo de la India en cuanto a la “innovación frugal” va más allá de la reducción de tamaños: involucra partir de las necesidades de los consumidores pobres, que en sí es un concepto novedoso (¿quién sabía que los pobres podrían ser consumidores?),  y trabajar en retroceso. En lugar de complicar o perfeccionar sus productos, los innovadores de la India retiran de estos todo menos lo que es mínimamente esencial, y por lo tanto los hacen accesibles, durables y efectivos.

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