六十年后印度的民主

1947年8月15日子夜,在遭到血腥分割的次大陆上一个崭新的国家诞生了。在烈焰燃遍全国、装满尸体的列车穿越印巴新的边境、身心疲倦的难民放弃一切来求得新生的时刻,独立的印度应运而生。很难想象一个羽翼丰满的民族会有一个不那么一帆风顺的开始。

但是60年后,从英国统治的废墟上崛起的印度成了世界上最大的民主国家,在经历了多年的快速经济增长之后,印度已经为成为21世纪巨人做好了准备。这个在成立时连能否生存都充满疑问的国家却用不计代价地建设民主给世人带来了引人注目的一课。

没有其他任何国家有着像印度这般多样的种族团体、相互之间无法用语言交流、宗教和文化习惯千差万别,地形、气候和经济发展水平也大不相同。在1947年,印度的领导人面对着一个100万人死亡、1300万人无家可归、遭受了成百上千亿卢比的财产损失、宗派暴力的伤口依然血流不止的国家。考虑到这种情况,以及管理新国家、将“土邦”纳入印度联邦、重新组织起四分五裂的武装部队所带来的挑战,他们采用了苛刻的独裁统治也可以谅解。

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