Mumbai slums Subhash Sharma/ZumaPress

La meurtrière pollution des villes indiennes

SINGAPOUR – La Chine et l’Inde sont à la tête de la croissance démographique et de l’urbanisation en Asie. Selon une étude de 2010 du cabinet de conseil McKinsey, ces deux pays devraient représenter 62 pour cent de la croissance de la population urbaine du continent entre 2005 et 2025 et jusqu’à 40 pour cent, une proportion vertigineuse, de cette croissance à l’échelle mondiale.

Ces statistiques soulignent l’urgente nécessité de mesures d’urbanisme et de gestion de la croissance. Il est toutefois nécessaire de reconnaître les différences fondamentales entre les deux pays. Des divergences dans les tendances de leur croissance urbaine respective, ainsi que des approches différentes de la politique environnementale, font que le défi démographique de l’Inde sera sans doute bien plus difficile à relever.

Bien que la Chine abrite 20 pour cent de l’humanité, son taux de fécondité est depuis deux décennies plus bas que le seuil de renouvellement des générations, et sa courbe démographique devrait devenir négative au cours des vingt prochaines années. En conséquence, l’Inde, dont la croissance démographique devrait rester positive dans un avenir prévisible, s’apprête à devenir le pays le plus peuplé au monde. Selon la plupart des estimations, la population de l’Inde devrait dépasser celle de la Chine à l’horizon 2022.

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