Mumbai slums Subhash Sharma/ZumaPress

Smrtící indická města

SINGAPUR – Čína a Indie stojí v popředí populačních a urbanizačních trendů v Asii. Podle studie společnosti McKinsey z roku 2010 se očekává, že obě země budou v letech 2005 až 2025 představovat 62% celkového růstu počtu městských obyvatel na tomto kontinentu a ohromujících 40% téhož růstu celosvětově.

Podobné statistiky jen podtrhují naléhavost městského plánování a řízení růstu. Stejně tak je ovšem důležité uvědomit si klíčové rozdíly mezi oběma zeměmi. Vzhledem k odlišnostem v trajektoriích jejich městského růstu a také v jejich přístupu k ekologické politice se indické populační problémy pravděpodobně budou řešit daleko obtížněji.

V Číně sice žije 20% lidstva, ale úhrnná plodnost je zde už déle než dvacet let pod úrovní prosté reprodukce (potřebné k udržení stávajícího počtu obyvatel), přičemž se očekává, že populační růst se během následujících dvou desetiletí překlopí do záporných čísel. V důsledku toho má Indie, kde se předpokládá, že populační růst v dohledné budoucnosti zůstane kladný, nakročeno k tomu, aby se stala nejlidnatější zemí světa. Podle většiny projekcí předběhne Indie počtem obyvatel Čínu do roku 2022.

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