El mantenimiento del crecimiento en la India

MUMBAI – La India no se ha librado de la desaceleración de la economía mundial. Para mantener el crecimiento que necesita a fin de seguir sacando de la pobreza a millones de personas, tendrá que replantearse su política económica. Para tener éxito, la India tendrá que intensificar la demanda interior y regional, fortalecer sus instituciones macroeconómicas e incorporarse a la lucha por un sistema mundial abierto. Unas perspectivas menos favorables en el exterior no deben hacer que la India reduzca sus ambiciones.

Para la realización de dichas ambiciones, harán falta inversiones que aumenten la eficiencia, en particular en materia de infraestructuras. Se deben conectar todos los rincones del país con los mercados interno e internacional mediante carreteras, ferrocarriles, puertos y aeropuertos. Se deben poner a disposición de los ciudadanos insumos como la energía, los minerales y el agua a precios competitivos. Se debe conectar el país con los mercados mediante aparatos portátiles y banda ancha y se debe facilitar más el acceso a la financiación, en particular para quienes han estado tradicionalmente excluidos de ella. Se están formulando los planes para la consecución de esos objetivos; ahora se debe aplicarlos.

Además, se debe mejorar el capital humano, lo que presupone una mayor inversión en atención de salud, nutrición y saneamiento, a fin de que los ciudadanos de la India estén sanos y aptos; una educación adaptada al desarrollo de las aptitudes que se valoran en el mercado laboral; y la creación de puestos de trabajo en empresas que tengan un incentivo para invertir en capacitación. Para lograr todo eso, es necesario que la burocracia se centre en servir a la economía, en lugar de –como ha ocurrido con demasiada frecuencia– en lo contrario. Resulta prometedor que los dirigentes políticos hayan afirmado su creencia en un “gobierno mínimo y una máxima gestión idónea”.

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