Narendra Modi Sadat/ZumaPress

Eliminar las barreras internas de la India

NUEVA DELHI – Entre las numerosas reformas que requieren implementación inmediata en la India, la más obvia es la relativa al impuesto sobre bienes y servicios (GST, por sus siglas en inglés). Entonces, ¿por qué los responsables de la aplicación de políticas en la India no lograron aprobarla?

La falta de un GST es casi indiscutible. Como señaló recientemente  el billonario Steve Forbes en su revista epónima “los observadores fuera de la India están sorprendidos por el gran parecido que tiene gran parte de la India con la Francia pre revolucionaria, pues hay muchas barreras que obstaculizan el curso de la eficiencia económica y el crecimiento”. Asimismo, señaló que el GST es crucial para permitir a la India, igual que en los Estados Unidos, obtener los beneficios de su mercado interno de tamaño continental, pues sustituiría “la mezcla sofocante de impuestos” que representan los “aranceles internos al movimiento de bienes”.

En efecto, la India tiene una serie de impuestos subnacionales abrumadores. Por ejemplo, los impuestos al comercio entre los estados indios requieren de puestos de control en sus fronteras, que generan largas filas de camiones esperando autorización para pasar. En consecuencia, los costos de entrega en todo el país son una pesadilla en términos logísticos. Los impuestos de las ventas al menudeo varían, y aumentan por impuestos de “arbitrio” en los envíos transfronterizos de bienes destinados al consumo local. Mientras que la Unión Europea se traduce en 28 Estados soberanos con un mercado común, la Unión india se traduce en un país soberano con 29 mercados separados.

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