Memorial for Rohith Vemula Saikat Paul/Pacific Press via ZUMA Wire

印度种姓制度如何生存

新德里—1月17日,印度泰伦加纳邦海德拉巴大学博士候选人维穆拉(Rohith Vemula)上吊自尽。即使在这个拥有12亿人的国家,一个人的死也能造成巨大影响。

维穆拉是一位“达利特”(Dalit),即曾经的“贱民”,属于印度教种姓制度的最底层。他也是海德拉巴大学安贝卡学生会(Ambedkar Students Association)领袖,为达利特主张权利。维穆拉的死让他取得了无法想象的成就:他成为国家英雄,他的悲剧成为最好的写照,证明了种姓在印度发展叙事中的挥之不去的遗毒。

和种族不同,种姓看不见:看一个人的面孔无法知道他属于哪个种姓。但种姓在印度社会中根深蒂固,它限制了一个人在生命所有各阶段所能获得的机会。身为达利特,你就披上了看不见的耻辱外衣,日常互动都要低人一等。维穆拉之死再次提醒印度人,三亿多属于最低级种姓的人,以及“部落民”(即土著),仍面临着来自社会所有阶层的歧视、偏见、敌意甚至暴力。

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