Nucléaire : ne confondons pas l'Inde et l'Iran

Au milieu des controverses qui entourent l'Iran et l'Irak, on ne prête guère attention à un événement majeur concernant un troisième pays dont le nom commence aussi par un I : l'Inde. Le Congrès américain va probablement se prononcer au cours de cette année sur l'Initiative de coopération pour le nucléaire civil entre les USA et l'Inde qui a été signé lors de la visite du président Bush à New Delhi en mars dernier.

Cet accord ouvre la voie à des exportations de technologie et de matériel nucléaire américain vers l'Inde pour servir dans son programme de nucléaire civil. En échange, l'Inde a promis d'ouvrir 14 de ses 22 centrales nucléaires existantes ou prévus, ainsi que toutes les centrales qui seront construites dans l'avenir, à des inspections internationales.

Cet accord est important pour au moins deux raisons. Premièrement, cet accord symbolise une nouvelle relation géopolitique entre les deux plus grandes démocraties de la planète qui étaient souvent dans des camps opposés durant la Guerre froide. Il pourrait avoir une importance historique, si non seulement il contribue à resserrer les liens techniques et économiques entre les deux pays, mais renforce aussi leur capacité à répondre aux défis qui se posent tant au niveau régional que mondial, et qui vont des risques de prolifération nucléaire au changement climatique.

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