Margaret Scott

Révoltes régionalistes en Europe

MADRID – En Catalogne et en Ecosse, les revendications indépendantistes résonnent à nouveau - symptôme d'une situation qui ne concerne pas seulement l'Espagne et le Royaume-Uni, mais l'Union européenne toute entière. La difficulté de cette dernière à faire face à la crise financière reflète et renforce sa raison d'être : l'intégration politique. Quelles que soient les racines de ces vieilles revendications, le sécessionnisme est le signe douloureux de ce processus dégénératif.

Ironie perverse, les partis les plus favorables à la sécession ont un programme pro-européen promettant que les nouveaux Etats seront automatiquement membres de l'UE. Le parti nationaliste écossais (SNP) et le parti catalan Convergence et Union (CiU) exploitent le concept du cosmopolitisme européen pour relancer des objectifs nationalistes étroits et en fin de compte faire éclater les pays dont ils font aujourd'hui partie.

Aucune disposition juridique de l'UE n'envisage la désintégration d'un pays membre, la sécession allant à l'encontre du principe central d'une "Union toujours plus étroite". C'est pourquoi on entend de plus en plus d'appels pour signifier aux électorats des régions potentiellement sécessionnistes que l'appartenance à l'UE n'est pas garantie en cas d'indépendance. Alex Salmond, le Premier ministre écossais, qui est aussi le dirigeant du SNP, a déclaré que l'appartenance à l'UE est juridiquement garantie. Mais comme ce n'est pas le cas, lui et son parti sont confrontés à leur plus grande crise depuis leur arrivée au pouvoir en 2007.

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