Architecture in China.

Chinas multilaterale Finanzmobilmachung

LONDON – Der Verwaltungsrat der Europäischen Bank für Wiederaufbau und Entwicklung hat jüngst Chinas Antrag auf Beitritt – ein Antrag, der seit einem Jahrzehnt im Entstehen begriffen war – bewilligt und zur endgültigen Abnahme an die Mitgliedsregierungen geschickt. Doch die EBWE-Mitgliedschaft ist nur ein Ausdruck von Chinas rasch wachsender Rolle bei den internationalen Finanzinstitutionen. Die Frage ist nun, ob China Veränderungen innerhalb dieser Institutionen anregen wird oder umgekehrt.

Die globale Finanzkrise hat die internationale Finanzarchitektur durchgerüttelt und viele Institutionen auf dem falschen Fuß erwischt. So hatte etwa der Internationale Währungsfonds in den Vorjahren aktiv eine Politik starker Kürzungen verfolgt. Zugleich jedoch erlaubte die Krise es den Institutionen, sich zu bewähren, und viele von ihnen – nicht zuletzt der IWF, aber auch die EBWE und die Europäische Investitionsbank – zeigten letztlich, dass sie flexibel reagieren konnten, und haben infolgedessen eine Mandatsausweitung und Kapitalaufstockung erlebt.

Die Krise hat zugleich die Legitimität der G7 – der Länder, in denen das Problem seinen Ursprung hat – untergraben und die G20 gestärkt. Dieser Wandel hat China eine Gelegenheit verschafft, seinen globalen Einfluss zu stärken – und das Land ist entschlossen, diese Gelegenheit trotz des Widerstandes von einigen Seiten zu nutzen. Es plant beispielsweise, seine Präsidentschaft der G20 im Jahr 2016 zur Förderung einer ehrgeizigen Agenda zu nutzen.

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