Architecture in China.

Mobilisation multilatérale de la Chine en matière financière

LONDRES – Le Conseil d’administration de la Banque européenne pour la reconstruction et le développement a récemment approuvé la demande d’adhésion de la Chine – candidature en gestation depuis une dizaine d’années – et fait parvenir cette demande aux gouvernements membres pour approbation finale. Cette possible adhésion à la BERD ne constitue toutefois qu’un des multiples aspects du rôle rapidement croissant de la Chine dans les institutions financières internationales. La question est désormais de savoir si la Chine est vouée à susciter un changement au sein de ces institutions, ou si c’est l’inverse qui se produira.

La crise financière mondiale a considérablement secoué l’architecture financière internationale, prenant par surprise de nombreuses institutions. Le Fonds monétaire international, par exemple, procédait depuis de plusieurs années à une compression significative de son personnel. Mais la crise a également permis à ces institutions de prouver leur valeur. Nombre d’entre elles – notamment le FMI, mais également la BERD et la Banque européenne d’investissement – se sont finalement montrées capables de réagir avec adaptabilité, gagnant par conséquent en capitaux ainsi qu’en termes d’étendue de leur mandat.

Cette crise a par ailleurs mis à mal la légitimité du G7 – groupe d’États à l’origine du problème – tout en dynamisant d’autre part le G20. Dans le cadre de ces évolutions, la Chine s’est trouvée en mesure de renforcer son influence mondiale – atout que le pays est déterminé à exploiter, malgré la résistance de certains acteurs. La Chine entend notamment tirer parti de son poste à la présidence du G20 en 2016 pour faire avancer son ambitieux agenda.

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