再分配还是包容?

利雅得—不平等性日益加剧的问题成为今年达沃斯世界经济论坛的一个重要议题。众所周知,美国经济在过去三十年中有显著增长,但中位家庭收入却没有增加。顶层1%(事实上,是顶层0.1%)攫取了大部分收益,社会已经难以再长期忍受这一局面。

许多人担心这是一个全球现象,并且各地出现这一现象的原因都差不多,这是托马斯·皮凯蒂(Thomas Piketty)在其热门著作《二十一世纪资本论》(Capital in Twenty-First Century)中提出的关键观点。但这一观点也许具有极大的误导性。

区分企业之间的生产率不平等和企业内的收入分配不平等至关重要。传统的劳资之争是关于后者的,是工人和所有者之间争夺馅饼。但企业生产率之间也存在大得惊人的不平等,这意味着馅饼的大小区别迥异。特别是一些发展中国家,省际和州际生产率差距达到十倍以上稀松平常,市际差距更是极其巨大。

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