Homeless person wearing ripped mittens.

收入不平等的新视角

阿布扎比—政客论及不平等问题是往往大谈意识形态主张而回避事实。在发展中和新兴经济体,一个关于收入不平等公开披露质量低劣的善意解释是收入分配数据常常难以获得或质量可疑。在这些最重要的主题上,争论常常是激烈有余,启发不足。

一些新研究有助于为这一现象画上句号。在专长研究拉美的经济学教授诺拉·卢斯蒂格(Nora Lustig)的领导下,杜兰大学平等性承诺研究所(Commitment to Equity Institute)的团队构建了涵盖收入分配状况和政府政策对收入分配影响情况的完整的数据库。最关键的是,数据库中的数字可以在大量中低收入国家间比较,也可以与发达国家的可得数据比较。来自这些研究的初步结论将给政治争论带来新视角——也可能惹恼左翼和右翼的空想家。

首先,卢斯蒂格在一篇最新文章中指出,世界收入不平等没有在上升。以最常用的额不平等性衡量指标——基尼系数为例。基尼系数位于0到100之间,0代表完全平等,100代表完全不平等(所有收入都归一人所有)。有数据国家的平均基尼系数(未经人口加权)在2000—2010年间略微下降,从39降到了38。

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