La economía de la inclusión

CAMBRIDGE – Mucha gente cree que el crecimiento económico es un objetivo moralmente ambiguo - aceptable, se diría, sólo si es ampliamente compartido y sostenible desde el punto de vista medioambiental. Pero, como le gusta decir a mi padre, ¿"Para qué hacer algo difícil si se lo puede hacer imposible"? Si no sabemos cómo hacer crecer las economías, es evidente que tampoco sabemos hacerlas crecer de manera inclusiva y sostenible.

Los economistas llevan mucho tiempo enfrentando el tema del balance entre el crecimiento y la equidad. ¿Cuál es la naturaleza de este compromiso? ¿Cómo se lo puede minimizar? ¿Es sostenible el crecimiento si lleva a mayor desigualdad? ¿Se ve obstaculizado el crecimiento  a causa de la redistribución?

Mi opinión es que tanto la desigualdad como el bajo crecimiento son a menudo el resultado de una forma particular de exclusión. Según la famosa frase de Adam Smith, "Nuestra cena no proviene de la benevolencia del carnicero, el cervecero ni el panadero, sino de su preocupación por sus propios intereses". Entonces, ¿por qué el crecimiento no habría de incluir los intereses particulares de los agentes económicos en lugar de exigir una acción colectiva deliberada?

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