L’Economia dell’Inclusione

CAMBRIDGE – Molte persone considerano la crescita economica un obiettivo eticamente ambiguo – accettabile, si sostiene, solo se ampiamente condivisa e sostenibile per l’ambiente. Ma, come mio padre ama dire, “Perché complicare qualcosa se si può renderla impossibile?” Se non sappiamo come far crescere le economie, ne consegue che non sappiamo come farle crescere in un modo inclusivo e sostenibile.

Gli economisti hanno lottato per secoli contro il dover scegliere tra crescita ed equità. Qual è la natura di tale scambio? Come può essere minimizzato? Si può sostenere la crescita anche qualora comporti un aumento delle disuguaglianze? La redistribuzione può ostacolare la crescita?

Credo che le disuguaglianze, come una crescita lenta, siano spesso il risultato di una particolare forma di esclusione. È noto che Adam Smith ebbe a dire che “Non è dalla benevolenza del macellaio, del birraio o del fornaio che dobbiamo aspettarci la nostra cena, ma dalla loro considerazione per i propri interessi”. Quindi, perché, la crescita dovrebbe non includere le persone, contro il proprio interesse, invece che richiedere azioni collettive intenzionali?

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