highway in china Zou Yuanjing/ZumaPress

El camino incluyente al crecimiento

GINEBRA – No existe un desafío en materia de políticas que preocupe más a los líderes del mundo que cumplir con la necesidad de expandir la participación en los beneficios del crecimiento económico y la globalización. De hecho, ha surgido un consenso geográfica e ideológicamente diverso de que hará falta un nuevo modelo de desarrollo económico –o al menos considerablemente mejorado- si queremos lograr una inclusión verdaderamente mayor.

Desafortunadamente, este consenso político hasta ahora sólo fue aspiracional, y no normativo. Los responsables de las políticas todavía tienen que desarrollar un marco de reglamentaciones reconocido internacionalmente -con un correspondiente conjunto de indicadores y logros mensurables- que sirva de guía a los países que apuntan a lograr mejoras abarcadoras en los estándares de vida, en lugar de simplemente seguir utilizando el crecimiento del PIB como la medición final del desempeño económico nacional.

Hasta qué punto el crecimiento crea oportunidades y mejora los niveles de vida depende de un conjunto de políticas económicas estructurales e institucionales, muchas de ellas, inclusive, en áreas fuera de la educación y la redistribución (que aparecen comúnmente en las discusiones sobre desigualdad). Existe un creciente reconocimiento de la importancia de las instituciones -particularmente marcos legales y entidades públicas que administran reglas e incentivos- en el proceso de desarrollo. Pero este reconocimiento todavía tiene que impregnar plenamente la estrategia para el crecimiento económico que tomen la mayoría de los economistas y responsables de las políticas.

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