highway in china Zou Yuanjing/ZumaPress

Le chemin inclusif vers la croissance

GENÈVE – Il n'y a pas de plus grand défi politique qui préoccupe les dirigeants du monde entier que celui de répondre à la nécessité d'élargir la participation aux bénéfices de la croissance économique et de la mondialisation. En effet, un consensus géographiquement et idéologiquement diversifié a émergé pour dire qu'un modèle de développement économique nouveau – ou du moins largement amélioré – sera nécessaire si une plus grande inclusion est véritablement recherchée.

Malheureusement, ce consensus politique est resté jusqu'ici au stade de l’ambition, plutôt que de prescription. Les décideurs politiques doivent encore élaborer un cadre politique internationalement reconnu – accompagné d’un ensemble d'indicateurs et de jalons mesurables – pour guider les pays recherchant l'amélioration généralisée des conditions de vie, au lieu de simplement continuer à utiliser la croissance du PIB comme mesure ultime de la performance de l'économie nationale.

La mesure dans laquelle la croissance crée des opportunités et améliore le niveau de vie dépend d'un ensemble de politiques économiques structurelles et institutionnelles, dont beaucoup n’ont pas trait à l'éducation ou la redistribution (qui sont les champs les plus fréquemment présentés dans les discussions sur l'inégalité). Il y a une reconnaissance croissante de l'importance des institutions – notamment les cadres juridiques et les organismes publics qui gèrent les règles et les incitations – dans le processus de développement. Mais cette reconnaissance n'a pas encore influencé véritablement la façon dont la plupart des économistes et des décideurs pensent la croissance économique.

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