highway in china Zou Yuanjing/ZumaPress

De inclusieve weg naar groei

GENÈVE – Er is geen grotere beleidsuitdaging voor leiders in de hele wereld dan het vervullen van de behoefte om de participatie in de voordelen van economische groei en mondialisering uit te breiden. Er is zelfs een geografisch en ideologisch diverse consensus ontstaan dat een nieuw – of op z'n minst zeer verbeterd – model van economische ontwikkeling nodig zal zijn als er écht meer inclusiviteit moet worden bereikt.

Helaas is deze politieke consensus tot nu toe eerder een ambitie dan een voorschrift gebleken. Er moet nog steeds een internationaal erkend beleidsraamwerk ontwikkeld worden – met een corresponderende reeks indicatoren en meetbare mijlpalen – om landen de weg te wijzen die brede verbetering van de levensomstandigheden nastreven, in plaats van de bbp-groei te willen blijven hanteren als de belangrijkste maatstaf voor de nationale economische prestaties.

De mate waarin groei mogelijkheden kan scheppen en de levensomstandigheden kan verbeteren hangt af van een heel scala aan structureel en institutioneel economisch beleid, ook op andere terreinen dan onderwijs en herverdeling (de terreinen die het meest worden genoemd in discussies over ongelijkheid). Het belang voor het ontwikkelingsproces van goede instituties wordt steeds meer onderkend – met name wettelijke raamwerken en publieke diensten die regels uitvaardigen en prikkels toedienen. Maar dit inzicht moet nog steeds ten volle doordringen in de benadering van economische groei die de meeste economen en beleidsmakers hanteren.

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