highway in china Zou Yuanjing/ZumaPress

增长的包容之路

日内瓦—没有什么政策挑战能够比满足扩大经济增长和全球化的好处的参与度的需要更加受全世界领导人关注了。事实上,一个具有地理和思想多样性的共识已经出现,即,如果想要真正扩大包容性,就需要一个新的——至少是大大改善的——经济发展模式。

不幸的是,这一政治共识目前仍停留在构想阶段,远远没有规范化。决策者还没有制定出得到国际承认的政策框架——以及相应的指标和可衡量里程碑——来指导各国着眼于范围宽广的生活水平敢删,而非仅仅继续用GDP增长作为国家经济表现的基本衡量手段。

增长能够在多大程度上创造机会和改善生活水平取决于一系列结构性和制度性经济政策,包括许多教育和分配领域(这两个领域常常在关于不平等性的讨论中被提及)之外的政策。制度在发展过程中的重要性正在日益获得承认——特别是法律框架和管理规则和激励的公共机构。但这一承认仍没有贯穿大部分经济学家和决策者所秉持的经济增长方针。

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