Verteidigung der polnischen Klempner

Befürworter des europäischen Sozialmodells behaupten, dass sich dieses aufgrund seiner Betonung des „sozialen Zusammenhalts“ von anderen Modellen abhebt. Gegen Zusammenhalt kann man schwer etwas sagen, ebenso wenig wie gegen Freundschaft, aber die wirkliche Frage ist, welche Politik am besten funktioniert.

Die gegenwärtige Politik zur Verwirklichung des sozialen Zusammenhalts gründet auf der Annahme, dass das freie Spiel der Marktkräfte ohne Interventionen zu enormen Einkommensunterschieden führt und damit den sozialen Konflikt verschärft. Studien zeigen allerdings, dass die Mehrheit der staatlichen Einkommenstransferleistungen innerhalb des Mittelsstandes stattfinden, während nur ein kleiner Teil von Reich zu Arm fließt. Manche Transferleistungen fließen überhaupt in die umgekehrte Richtung. So wird beispielsweise in vielen Rentensystemen das Geld von den Armen in die Mittelschicht transferiert und zwar einfach deshalb, weil reiche Menschen in der Regel länger leben.

Diese Sozialausgaben führen in den meisten Ländern zwar zu zahlreichen staatlichen Leistungen, nicht aber zu einer Reduktion der sozialen Ungleichheit. Weniger Sozialausgaben könnten daher nur einen relativ geringen Anstieg der Ungleichheit und sozialer Konflikte bewirken. Wären die Sozialausgaben in Europa überdies zielgerichteter, könnte man mit weniger sozialen Transferleistungen die Ungleichheit effizienter verringern.

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