波兰水暖工辩

欧洲社会模式的支持者宣称,这一模式的过人之处就是其对“社会凝聚”的重视。而且,人们就像难以反对友谊一样难以反对凝聚。但是真正的问题是哪些政策最为有效。

现有实现社会凝聚的政策建立在这一信念基础之上,那就是,市场力量如果不加以调节就会导致巨大的收入差距,从而激化社会冲突。但是研究结果往往表明,政府收入转移的大部分都在中产阶级中进行,而只有一小部分是从富人流向穷人。实际上,某些转移的方向正好相反。例如,仅仅是由于较为富有的人一般寿命较长,因此,许多养老金体系将金钱从穷人转移到中产阶级。

大多数欧洲国家从它们的社会支出中得到的是大量的由国家提供的服务,而并没有大量减少社会不平等。因此,较低水平的社会支出只会产生相对较小的不平等增加和社会冲突。而且,如果欧洲人提高社会支出的针对性,那么,他们就可能会用较低的社会转移水平较大地减少社会不平等。

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