En defensa de la justicia internacional

CIUDAD DE MÉXICO – Poco después de que ocupara mi cargo de Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores de México en 2001, me encontré en mi escritorio con un problema inusitado. Un oficial naval argentino, que se había instalado en México con nombre falso, era buscado por España con las acusaciones de genocidio, torturas y terrorismo. El oficial, Ricardo Miguel Cavallo, estaba implicado en violaciones cometidas en 1977 y 1978 en la tristemente famosa Escuela de Mecánica de la Armada de Buenos Aires. Según el acta de acusación español, Cavallo pertenecía a la unidad de operaciones de un grupo que participó activamente en el secuestro y las torturas de personas a las que el régimen consideraba izquierdistas.

La cuestión que se me planteaba era la de si extraditar a Cavallo a un país tercero, España, para que fuera juzgado por violaciones de los derechos humanos cometidas en la Argentina. La firma de aquellos documentos representaría una innovación, pues indicaría por primera vez que los presuntos violadores de derechos podrían ser procesados en cualquier parte del mundo en los casos en que no fuera probable que la justicia cayera sobre ellos en su país.

Para mí, la decisión fue sencilla: los crímenes exigían justicia y era más probable que se pidiesen cuentas a Cavallo en España que en la Argentina. En aquella época, la legislación de amnistía en la Argentina lo protegía contra el procesamiento, conque firmé los documentos relativos a su extradición.

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