Eloge mesuré de l’Amérique latine

BUENOS AIRES/WASHINGTON, DC – Barack Obama effectue une tournée présidentielle au Brésil, au Chili et au Salvador. Profitons de l’occasion pour nous pencher sur les performances enregistrées ces derniers temps en l’Amérique latine, et pour analyser leur impact, tant positif que négatif, sur l’avenir.

L’Amérique latine, face à la crise financière internationale, a fait preuve d’une aptitude remarquable à rebondir. Elle a connu une baisse globale de sa production en 2009, mais ça ne l’a pas empêché de se rétablir avec une rapidité extraordinaire. Au plus fort de la crise, la solidité de son système bancaire et l’efficacité de ses mesures macroéconomiques – au nombre desquelles le principe de responsabilité budgétaire, une dette publique faible, une flexibilité des taux de change et d’importants cumuls de réserves internationales – ont permis aux pays latino-américains de mettre en ouvre une politique anticyclique inédite. La paix de la vie politique a été garantie par des mesures sociales qui ont désamorcé les conflits.

Bref, les économies latino-américaines ont certes été aidées par le prix élevé des matières premières, mais ce sont des réformes économiques essentielles, adoptées dans la majeure partie de la région, qui leur ont permis de faire une “bonne crise.”

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