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非洲粮仓

基加利—在1945年首个世界粮食日上,全世界人民庆祝联合国粮农组织成立、第一个消灭饥饿的全球合作计划启动。今年,在第70个世界粮食日上,各国在可持续发展目标——其中之一要求在2030年消灭饥饿和营养不良,并建立恢复力和可持续性更强的粮食体系——的引领下动员起来。这一目标可以实现吗?

世界人口增长迅速(到2030年预计将达80亿),气候变化的影响日益明显,适耕土地面积不断萎缩,不可否认,实现这一目标是一项艰巨的挑战。但对非洲而言——非洲拥有全世界60%的适耕土地和有利于巨大的作物多样性的气候——努力实现这一目标是一次确保非洲人粮食安全、通过成为主要粮食出口市场提振经济的良机。

尽管许多非洲国家近几年来经济快速增长,但农业部门仍处于停滞状态。事实上,非洲农业仍由小农主导,他们无法获得提高生产率的技术,主要集中于少数产品,与市场、制造业和更广义的经济联系也不太密切。除了不利于粮食安全——非洲仍是主要粮食进口市场——农业生产率水平低下还导致了顽固的农村贫困,虽然许多非洲城市已经出现了中产阶级。

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