La nuova frontiera dell’assistenza sanitaria

PECHINO – Nel fornire assistenza sanitaria alla loro popolazione in rapida crescita – o, in alcuni casi, in rapido invecchiamento – i Paesi in via di sviluppo incontrano ostacoli apparentemente insormontabili, legati principalmente al sovraccarico del sistema sanitario locale e alla diffusione di malattie infettive e non. L'accesso alle cure e ai farmaci in queste regioni rappresenta una sfida dai molteplici aspetti che può essere affrontata efficacemente solo attraverso un impegno collettivo.

Per aiutare le popolazioni svantaggiate a superare i loro problemi sanitari, bisogna che s'instauri un rapporto duraturo e collaborativo tra aziende farmaceutiche, governi, organizzazioni senza scopo di lucro e leader di comunità. Insieme, questi dovrebbero adottare un approccio binario, che prenda in esame sia i fattori "hardware" (cioè quelli che restano costanti, come la distanza fisica dai centri di cura e le filiere allungate) che i fattori "software" (caratteristiche immateriali che variano notevolmente da regione a regione, come ad esempio il ruolo della famiglia e le credenze culturali).

Questi principi valgono in particolare per luoghi come la provincia rurale dello Xinjiang in Cina, dove la speranza di vita non supera i 67 anni (contro i 73,5 della media nazionale) e la mancanza di accesso alle cure sanitarie ostacola il benessere. Lo Xinjiang si estende su una superficie di 1.650.000 chilometri quadrati, ma ospita una popolazione di soli 21 milioni di persone, molte delle quali appartengono a tribù nomadi. Dal punto di vista economico, la resilienza dello Xinjiang è fondamentale per la crescita economica della Cina, poiché la regione è una porta verso l'Occidente.

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