Anadolu Agency | getty images

Aspectos políticos de la erradicación de la polio

CAMBRIDGE – Hace unos años, parecía que la campaña global para erradicar la poliomielitis se había estancado. Tras décadas de trabajo continuo, el virus seguía siendo endémico en Pakistán, Afganistán y Nigeria. Luego, en 2013 y 2014, se descubrió que había vuelto a aparecer en siete países africanos y de Medio Oriente de los que había sido erradicado, lo que motivó a la Organización Mundial de la Salud a declarar una “emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional”.

A pesar de este retroceso, el mundo hoy está más cerca que nunca de erradicar la polio. En 2015, hubo solo 74 casos nuevos: 80% menos que el año anterior, y el total anual más bajo de la historia. Y todos se concentraron en solo dos países: 54 en Pakistán y 20 en Afganistán. Además, hace dieciocho meses que el virus no se detecta en África.

Los motivos detrás de este avance notable son aleccionadores, y muestran los desafíos a los que se enfrenta el personal sanitario y el mejor modo de superarlos.

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