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Политика ликвидации полиомиелита

КЕМБРИДЖ – Несколько лет назад казалось, что глобальная кампания по искоренению полиомиелита зашла в тупик. После нескольких десятилетий усилий по ликвидации вирус упорно оставался эндемичным в Пакистане, Афганистане и Нигерии. Затем, в 2013 и 2014 годах, было обнаружено возвращение полиомиелита в семь стран Африки и Ближнего Востока, которые ранее считались свободными от него, что побудило Всемирную организацию здравоохранения объявить возрождение заболевания «чрезвычайной ситуацией в области здравоохранения международного значения».

Несмотря на этот рецидив, сегодня мир ближе, чем когда-либо, подошел к ликвидации полиомиелита. В 2015 году было зафиксировано всего 74 новых случаев заболевания – на 80 % меньше, чем годом раньше, и это стало наименьшим количеством случаев в год за всю историю наблюдения за болезнью. Все случаи были сконцентрированы всего в двух странах: 54 – в Пакистане и 20 – в Афганистане. Кроме того, к тому времени уже прошло восемнадцать месяцев с момента последнего обнаружения вируса в Африке.

Причины такого замечательного поворота поучительны и иллюстрируют проблемы, с которыми сталкиваются работники общественного здравоохранения, а также наилучшие способы их преодоления.

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