People exiting a train station

向福利国家移民

慕尼黑—动摇一些阿拉伯国家的武装冲突导致一大波难民涌向欧洲。2015年,光是德国就接收了110万难民。与此同时,欧洲内部自由迁徙原则的实施也引发了大规模(但基本没有得到关注的)欧洲内部移民流。2014年,德国前所未有地出现了来自其他欧盟国家的304,000人的净流入,2015年的数字可能与此相当。

一些欧盟成员国——包括奥地利、匈牙利、斯洛文尼亚、西班牙、法国以及最初欢迎移民的丹麦和瑞典——的应对措施是事实暂停了申根协定,重新开启边境控制。经济学家对此其实一点也不奇怪。20世纪90年代,几十篇学术文章探讨了向福利国家移民的问题,其中的许多问题如今正在日益显现。当时,我本人也写了很多文章,试图引起决策者的注意——但大多徒劳无功。

一个基本问题摆在眼前。福利国家的定义是,收入高于平均水平的国民缴纳税收和捐赠多于他们从公共服务中所获得的量,而收入低于平均水平的公民付出少于他们所获得的量。这一再分配让公共资源净流向较低收入家庭,它是对市场经济的明智的纠正,一种针对生活起伏和作为市场经济特征、与平等背道而驰的稀缺性定价的严酷性的保险。

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