Immigrants integration Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Glücksfall Migranten

OXFORD/SHANGHAI – Viele der derzeit auf der Welt wütenden Einwanderungsdebatten spiegeln die fehlerhafte Annahme wieder, dass die Aufnahme von Einwanderern ein Akt der Großzügigkeit sei – und ein kostspieliger noch dazu. Dabei stellen Einwanderer für die Zielländer durchaus keine wirtschaftliche Belastung, sondern eine bedeutende wirtschaftliche Chance dar. Länder, die bei der Einwanderung einen durchdachten, langfristigen Ansatz verfolgen, können einen großen, greifbaren Nutzen erzielen.

Eine neue Untersuchung des McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) zeigt, dass grenzüberschreitende Migranten – von denen mehr als 90% ihre Heimat aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen verlassen haben – nur 3,4% der Weltbevölkerung ausmachen, aber fast 10% zum weltweiten BIP beitragen. Weil rund zwei Drittel dieser Migranten in entwickelten Ländern ansässig sind, wo die Produktivität tendenziell am höchsten ist, maximieren sie die Auswirkungen ihrer Arbeit, und zwar mit weitreichenden wirtschaftlichen Vorteilen. Migranten aller Fertigkeitsniveaus tragen zu diesem Effekt bei.

Migranten haben 2015 rund 6,7 Billionen Dollar zum globalen BIP beigesteuert – etwa drei Billionen Dollar mehr, als sie Prognosen zufolge produziert hätten, wenn sie in ihren Herkunftsländern geblieben wären. Weil die Bevölkerungsströme aus den Entwicklungsländern in die entwickelten Länder die größten Produktivitätszuwächse bewirken, entfallen auf diese Zielländer mehr als 90% des Gesamtbeitrags der Migranten zum globalen BIP. MGI schätzt, dass Migranten 2015 in den USA rund zwei Billionen Dollar, in Deutschland 550 Milliarden Dollar, in Großbritannien 390 Milliarden, in Australien 330 Milliarden und in Kanada 320 Milliarden zur Wertschöpfung beitrugen.

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