不平等性三驾马车

拉古娜海滩—最近结束的国际货币基金组织(IMF)和世界银行年会颇有些不和谐。其中最显著的是参与国在关于不平等性问题上的利益分歧以及一直缺少解决不平等性的正式政府行动计划。这反映出政策想象力的巨大失败——这个问题相当紧迫。

利益冲突其来有自。尽管国家间不平等性在降低,但国家内部不平等性在升高,发达国家和发展中国家均是如此。这一过程受长期问题和结构性问题的联合推动——包括科技进步性质的改变、“赢家通吃”投资特征的出现以及有利于富人的政治制度——并受到周期性力量的推波助澜。

在发达国家,问题的根源在于前所未有的政治极化。政治极化阻碍了全面应对措施,也给中央银行造成了过重的政策负担。尽管货币当局比其他决策机构享受着更大的政治自主权,但它们缺少必要的工具有效解决国家所面临的挑战。

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