IMF building Javier Ignacio Acuña Ditzel/Flickr

Comment réformer le FMI à présent ?

WASHINGTON, DC – Plus de quatre ans ont passé depuis qu'une majorité écrasante des membres du Fonds Monétaire International a convenu d'un train de réformes permettant de doubler les ressources de l'organisation et de réorganiser sa structure de gouvernance en faveur des pays en développement. Mais l'adoption des réformes doit être approuvée par les pays membres du FMI. Et bien que les États-Unis aient été parmi ceux qui ont voté en faveur de cette mesure, le Président Barack Obama a été incapable d'obtenir l'approbation du Congrès. Le moment est venu d'envisager des méthodes alternatives pour faire avancer les réformes.

Le retard pris par les États-Unis représente un énorme revers pour le FMI. Il fait obstacle à une restructuration de son processus décisionnel censé mieux représenter l'importance croissante et le dynamisme des pays en développement. En outre, comme les réformes sont en suspens, le FMI a été contraint de dépendre en grande partie de prêts auprès de ses membres, plutôt que des ressources permanentes demandées par les nouvelles mesures. Ces prêts, conçus comme un pont provisoire avant l'entrée en vigueur des réformes, doivent être confirmés tous les six mois.

À notre avis, la meilleure méthode à suivre consiste à découpler le cadre des réformes qui exige la ratification par le Congrès américain, du reste du train de mesures. Un seul élément majeur (la décision d'aller vers un Conseil d'administration entièrement élu), nécessite un amendement aux statuts du FMI ainsi que l'approbation du Congrès.

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