Bretton Woods Education Images/Getty Images

Imaginar un nuevo Bretton Woods

AUSTIN (EE. UU.) – La debacle financiera de 2008 generó pedidos de un sistema financiero global que limite los desequilibrios comerciales, modere los flujos de capitales especulativos y evite el contagio sistémico. Tal precisamente era el objetivo del sistema de Bretton Woods original. Pero hoy un sistema así sería insostenible e indeseable. ¿Cómo podría ser una alternativa?

La conferencia de 1944 en Bretton Woods fue escenario del choque entre dos hombres y sus ideas: Harry Dexter White, representante del presidente estadounidense Franklin Roosevelt, y John Maynard Keynes, representante de un Imperio Británico cuya luz se estaba apagando. Previsiblemente, triunfó el esquema de White, por el que se usó el superávit comercial de los Estados Unidos en la posguerra para dolarizar a Europa y Japón, a cambio de que aceptaran un poder discrecional total de Estados Unidos en la política monetaria. Y el nuevo sistema de la posguerra puso los cimientos de la mejor época del capitalismo, hasta que Estados Unidos perdió el superávit comercial y el esquema de White se vino abajo.

Durante gran parte de la última década, se ha visto resurgir periódicamente una pregunta muy sencilla: ¿sería el descartado plan de Keynes más adecuado para nuestro mundo multipolar después de 2008?

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