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Ideen für ein neues Bretton Woods

AUSTIN, TEXAS – Die Finanzkrise von 2008 löste Forderungen nach einem globalen Finanzsystem aus, das Handelsungleichgewichte verringert, spekulative Kapitalflüsse abmildert und Ansteckungseffekte innerhalb des Systems verhindert. Das natürlich war das Ziel des ursprünglichen Bretton-Woods-Systems. Nur wäre ein solches System heute weder machbar noch wünschenswert. Wie also könnte eine Alternative aussehen?

Die Konferenz von Bretton Woods im Jahr 1944 war Schauplatz eines Konflikts zwischen zwei Männern und ihren Visionen: Harry Dexter White, dem Vertreter von Präsident Franklin D. Roosevelt, und John Maynard Keynes, der das welkende britische Empire vertrat. Es überrascht nicht, dass Whites Programm sich durchsetzte. Es beruhte auf dem US-Handelsüberschuss der Nachkriegszeit, den die USA im Austausch gegen Europas und Japans Einwilligung in das vollständige geldpolitische Ermessen der USA zur Dollarisierung dieser Länder einsetzten. Das neue Nachkriegssystem bildete die Grundlage für eine Sternstunde des Kapitalismus – bis Amerika seinen Handelsüberschuss verlor und Whites Übereinkommen zusammenbrach.

Die Frage, die während des letzten Jahrzehnts in regelmäßigen Abständen gestellt wurde, ist einfach und direkt: Wäre Keynes’ abgelehnter Plan für unsere multipolare Welt im Gefolge von 2008 geeigneter?

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