拉美的不自由民主

圣地亚哥—在1997年的著名文章中,法利德·扎卡利亚(Fareed Zakaria)创造了“不自由民主”一词来形容用(公正度各异的)选举选择领导人、但限制公民自由和政治自由的国家。当时,这类行为在亚洲和非洲最为普遍,集中出现不自由民主的则是前苏联国家。

扎卡利亚将不自由民主称为“成长行业”,这么做不可谓不正确:在过去15年中,不自由民主在拉美蓬勃发展。

这可能令人惊奇,因为在20世纪八九十年代,大部分布拉沃河(Rio Bravo,北美称为格兰德河,Rio Grande)以南国家从右翼独裁过渡到民主。平心而论,其中一些民主国家诞生之初并不完美,但乐观者认为所有选举都能公正进行、对公民自由的限制完全消除只是时间问题。

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