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Die Anatomie des illiberalen Kapitalismus

BUDAPEST – Populisten wie US-Präsident Donald Trump und Jarosław Kaczyński, der de facto die Fäden der polnischen Politik zieht, und autoritäre Führer wie der türkische Präsident Recep Tayyip Erdoğan und der russische Präsident Wladimir Putin erwärmen sich nicht nur für das vom ungarischen Ministerpräsidenten Viktor Orbán bevorzugte Modell einer „illiberalen Demokratie “. Jeder von ihnen befürwortet auch eine Form von „illiberalem Kapitalismus“.

Doch was hat illiberaler Kapitalismus zur Folge und inwiefern lässt er sich mit illiberaler Demokratie vereinbaren? Als Nationalisten betrachten Trump, Kaczyński, Erdoğan, Putin und Orbán die Marktwirtschaft nicht als Instrument, das der Förderung der Dynamik, der Effizienz, des Wohlstandes und der individuellen Freiheit dient, sondern vor allem als Möglichkeit, die Macht des Staates auszubauen.

Es hat in der Geschichte verschiedene autoritäre, rechte Denkschulen über das Verhältnis von Markt und Staat gegeben. Im einen Extremfall haben die Nazis eine Planwirtschaft unter Beibehaltung von Privateigentum und hoher Einkommensungleichheit errichtet. Im anderen Extremfall haben Sozialdarwinisten des frühen zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts in Europa und in den Vereinigten Staaten freie Inlandsmärkte gefordert, die das Land stärken würden, weil nur die „Stärksten“ überleben.

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