Miroslav Petrasko/Flickr

Les insaisissables fondements de l’unité européenne

NEW YORK – D’après les derniers sondages d’opinion, les grands vainqueurs des élections parlementaires européennes de ce mois-ci ne seront autres que ces partis populistes de droite qui partagent une haine commune de l’Union européenne, en premier lieu desquels le Front national français, le Parti néerlandais pour la liberté, ou encore le Parti pour l’indépendance du Royaume-Uni. Bien qu’il soit peu probable que cette droite eurosceptique remporte une majorité de sièges, sa force collective porte bel et bien un coup à la cause de l’unité européenne. Comment expliquer qu’un projet né de si grands espoirs au lendemain de la Seconde guerre mondiale se heurte aujourd’hui à une telle résistance ?

Le succès des idées populistes de droite en Europe découle non seulement d’un malaise vis-à-vis de l’UE, mais également d’une vague de ressentiment à l’encontre d’élites libérales ou de gauche accusées d’être à la source de nombreux aspects anxiogènes : immigration, pression sur les économies, extrémisme islamique, et bien entendu prétendue domination de l’ « eurocratie » de Bruxelles. De même que les partisans du Tea Party aux États-Unis, un certain nombre d’Européens affirment avoir le sentiment que leur pays ne leur appartient plus désormais.

Les populations sont confrontées à une sorte d’impuissance politique, au sein d’un monde semble-t-il de plus en plus contrôlé par de grandes entreprises et bureaucraties internationales sans visage. C’est ainsi que le populisme trouve écho en laissant penser que la situation serait bien plus favorable si chaque pays pouvait prendre à nouveau le contrôle de son propre destin.

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