Kobane Syria Sebastian Backhaus/ZumaPress

La necesidad de detener las bombas sucias

VIENA – El terrorismo nuclear es, en palabras del Presidente estadounidense Barack Obama, “el más grave peligro al que nos enfrentamos”. Si bien pocos cuestionarían este modo de formularlo, el mundo tiene tareas pendientes sobre cómo abordar esta amenaza. Una década después de que los líderes mundiales acordaran hacer enmiendas al hito que significó en 1987 la Convención sobre la protección física de los materiales nucleares (CPPNM, por sus siglas en inglés) para dificultar que los terroristas obtengan acceso a materiales nucleares, sigue pendiente que entren en vigencia las nuevas medidas. Es urgente hacer frente a la vulnerabilidad que causa esta situación.

En julio de 2005 los firmantes de la CPPNM acordaron enmendar la Convención para hacer frente al riesgo del terrorismo de manera más eficaz. Las nuevas medidas harían más difícil que los terroristas logren la diseminación generalizada de materiales radioactivos mediante el ataque a una planta de energía nuclear o la detonación de un artefacto de dispersión radioactiva, conocido comúnmente como bomba sucia.

Sin embargo, antes de que pueda entrar en vigencia esta enmienda, dos tercios de los 152 firmantes deben ratificar la convención original. Si bien se han hecho avances importantes (en julio, Estados Unidos, Italia y Turquía lo hicieron), se necesitan al menos 14 países más.

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